(The Resistance Museum deals with a dark period of recent Danish history, and almost all the walls and display cases are painted matt black and dimly lit to reflect this. As a result it was difficult to take photographs inside the museum, and many may not be as clear as one would have wished them to be.)
As you enter the exhibition, the first exhibit you come to is a 20mm Oerlikon Gun.
The next section examines the occupation of Denmark after the invasion of 1940, the part played by Danes – particularly seamen – in the Allied war effort, and the early days of the resistance.
This is followed by a recreation of the main living areas of a typical Danish house during the German occupation …
… as well as examples of the rations that were available and the propaganda and newspapers that were published.
A separate corridor tells the stories of some of the resisters and the measures taken by the German security services to crush them.
The next two exhibits deal with collaboration …
… and the role played by the King of Denmark during the German occupation.
An important aspect of the work done by the Danish resistance movement was the spreading of accurate news and information clandestinely, and one of the secret printing presses is on display in a recreation of a typical workshop.
The largest section of the museum deals with the growth of the Danish resistance movement, the role of SOE (Special Operations Executive), and the work done by the radio operators and saboteurs.
The final part of the museum examines what happened to Denmark’s Jewish population …
… and the events leading up to the liberation of Denmark in May 1945.
The Bangsbo Fort Museum occupies a position south of the major port of Frederikshavn in Denmark. It comprises a complex of over fifty bunkers, most of which date from the Second World War.
During our visit we were able to go into two of the restored bunkers.
The first was an artillery bunker, whose entrance was guarded by a machine gun port.
Inside was the ready-use room for the gun’s shells …
… from where we went down a short flight of narrow concrete stairs …
… and into the gun casemate. This had a commanding view of the Baltic Sea …
… and was protected from enemy artillery fire and bombs by an concrete overhang.
The 15cm (5.9-inch) gun inside the casemate was Swedish in origin, and had been removed from the Danish warship Niels Juels after it had been seized in 1942.
Above ground a further pair of guns that had formed part of the fort’s armament were on display. These were a Danish-built 12cm (4.7-inch) gun …
… and a German-built 7.5cm PaK gun on a coastal defence mounting.
The second bunker that we visited was one of the command bunkers, which contained examples of the myriad of equipment used to control some of the fort’s guns and to provide living accommodation for the bunker’s personnel.
In the fort’s visitors centre there was a small shop as well as a model of the fort …
… as well as examples of the ammunition used by the fort’s guns.
On entering the German-built bunker a display board explains that the bunker was originally built to act as a first-aid post for the surrounding complex of coastal defences.
The explanation is accompanied by a plan of the original bunker.
Two display cases contain mannequins dressed in typical uniforms worn by the soldiers who would have occupied the bunker during the Second World War.
One of the bunker’s rooms has been set up to show what it would have looked like when in use as a first-aid station …
… whilst another has been used to recreate a typical sleeping area in the bunker.
A third room contains a detailed model of the bunker complex at Grenen …
… as well as a map of the area.
A fourth room contains a display about the Second World War, …
… the human cost of the war, …
… and the building and function of the Atlantic Wall.
Of particular interest to me was a display that featured images of all the ships of the Kriegsmarine.
There were also numerous displays of artefacts and memorabilia from the time when the bunker was occupied and used by the Germans.
Sue had spotted that English Heritage was hosting a World War II event at Dover Castle over this Bank Holiday weekend, and we decided to go yesterday (Sunday) as we expected that it to be less crowded than it would be on the Bank Holiday Monday. It took us less than ninety minutes to drive to Dover, and after parking in one of the nearby overflow car parks, we arrived at the entrance just before 11.00am. Thanks to having bought tickets online before we left home, we were able to avoid the queues at the ticket office and walked straight in.
We entered the Castle via the Constable’s Gate …
… and turned right towards the sea. As we walked along the pathway towards the NAAFI Restaurant, we had a magnificent view over the port and town of Dover.
Away from the ferry port, we could see a cruise liner moored alongside the Cruise Terminal. (The ship was the AIDA Sol).
A number of re-enactors had set up displays next to the path. They were from a group called Das Heer and represent member of the 27th Infantry Regiment of the 12th Infantry Division.
We decided to have a drink outside the NAAFI Restaurant, and whilst we were there we had to opportunity to spend some time looking at a group of re-r actors who were depicting life on the Home Front during the Second World War.
We had intended to visit the wartime tunnels and the Operation Dynamo exhibit, but the queue was so long (it was estimated that we would have to have queued for between one and two hours to get in) that we decided to move on towards the Admiralty Look-Out and Coastal Artillery Fire Control Station. Along the way we were passed by a group of re-enactors dressed as members of the Essex Regiment.
We also passed a statue of Admiral Ramsey (the man who organised and commanded the evacuation of Dunkirk and helped to plan Operation Overlord) that was situated looking out across the English Channel …
… and a 3-inch anti-aircraft gun.
The Admiralty Look-Out and Coastal Artillery Fire Control Station was very impressive, and made an interesting comparison with similar German bunkers we have visited on Jersey.
The view from the top of the building was very impressive, and it was interesting to see the White Cliffs from a somewhat different angle from normal.
We then made our way up the steps towards the old Officers Mess …
… and along the roadway that passes around the mound on top of which is the church of St Mary-in-Castro …
… and past some old artillery casemates.
Das Heer was mounting a display in the natural amphitheatre between the Great Tower and the church mound. They demonstrated the various weapons used by the Wehrmacht…
… and despite warnings a lot of people were taken aback by the noise generated by blank-firing weapons.
Another re-enactment group was also present at the display but we’re not taking part. They represented the French Army, and included members who were dressed as North African troops.
We retraced our steps around the church mound, and made our way through Peverell’s Gate …
… and into the area that is usually used as a car park for Disabled Blue Badge holders. This contained a number of stands and exhibits, amongst which was an RAF exhibit that included a replica Supermarine Spitfire.
We then walked back past The Constable’s Gate towards the entrance to the Medieval tunnels. Two re-enactment groups were situated there, one of which represented the Essex Regiment …
… and the other recreated the German Home Front.
As it was past midday and the Castle was getting increasingly crowded we decided to call it a day and return home. A minibus took us back to the car park just in time to see a Hawker Hurricane perform a display overhead. (It was actually a Hurribomber as it was specially equipped to act as a fighter-bomber rather than as an interceptor.)
Our journey home took just over ninety minutes, and both of us felt that the event had been very interesting and very entertaining … and an excellent way to spend a sunny Sunday.
Rather than repeat the coverage of the exhibits that were included in my earlier blog entry, I am going to concentrate on the new exhibits … although I could not resist photographing some of my favourites, which include a model of the building that houses the Museum as it was when it was used as an arsenal, …
… a Carden-Lloyd Tankette, …
… and a mobile armoured pillbox … which bears a striking resemblance to a Dalek on wheels!
Denmark did not take part in the First World War and 2014 marks a very different anniversary for the Danes; it is the 150th anniversary of the war with Prussia that ended with the area of Europe controlled by the Danish monarchy being reduced to almost half of its former size. As a result, the Museum has mounted a small display to mark this anniversary.
The Danish Armed Forces in Afghanistan
This exhibit was undergoing revision and expansion the last time we visited the Museum. It is now open, and gives a very realistic idea about the conditions under which members of the Danish Armed Forces operated in Afghanistan. It combines photographs, recreations, and sound to do this … and both Sue and I were very impressed by it.
(Please note that the lighting inside the exhibit was designed for dramatic effect and not for photography, hence some of the odd colours that appear in some of the following images.)
Arriving at Camp Bastion
Leaving Camp Bastion to go out on patrol
Patrolling the countryside
The impact of an IED (Improvised Explosive Device)
An Afghan polling station
An Afghan Market
On our previous visit the upper floor of the Museum had been close for renovation, but on this occasion it was open and housed a gallery entitled ‘Denmark’s Wars’.
To the right of the entrance to the upper floor was a collection of modern helmets displayed in the way that ancient armour is often displayed …
… as were a number of modern automatic rifles.
The exhibits included a number of sets of armour for horses …
… and men, …
… including some Japanese armour.
There were several display cases full of early weapons …
… and nineteenth century Russian uniforms.
There were also collections of military headgear, …
… examples of uniforms that were worn by various Norwegian monarchs, …
… military medals, …
… and models of artillery pieces.
The middle of the nineteenth century was also featured, and included two cabinets containing typical military uniforms of the period as worn by ordinary US soldiers.
The latter part of the nineteenth century was covered …
… as was the First World War, during which Denmark remained neutral.
There were several cabinets devoted to Denmark’s involvement in the Second World War …
… and the Cold War.
The role of the Danish Air Force was not forgotten, and there were two display cases full of large-scale models of aircraft used by the Air Force.
This show has been running at its current for eight years, but this is the first time we have not been on holiday when the show was on. As I know the area around Damyns Hall Aerodrome very well (my home from 1958 until 1973 was just over a mile away in Corbets Tey, and my father lived there from 1958 until he went into a care home), we had no problem getting there by the time the show opened at 10.00am. We had pre-booked entrance tickets, and by 10.15am we had passed through the show entrance and were looking around the show.
Please click on the image to enlarge it.
Flying MachinesAlthough the show is devoted to both military and flying machines and takes place on an aerodrome, the majority of the displays were military. There were, however, some interesting flying machines on show.
Whilst we were waiting to enter the show, a Boeing-Stearman Model 75 trainer flew overhead and landed at the aerodrome.
This aircraft is regularly flown from Damyns Hall, and specialises in wing walks … hence the apparatus above the upper wing!
Around midday a Bell UH-1 Iroquois (unofficially known as a Huey) also flew into the aerodrome.
By the entrance to the show was the engine and cockpit of a late model Supermarine Spitfire …
… whilst just outside the hanger was a scaled-down flying replica Spitfire.
On display was a semi-scale replica of a World War I-era Bristol M.1 Monoplane Scout.
Military MachinesThe show had a very large display of static vehicles, only a small part of which is shown below.
Please click on the image to enlarge it.
Please click on the image to enlarge it.
Please click on the image to enlarge it.
Please click on the image to enlarge it.
There were some particular vehicles of interest including a Belgian-built Minerva Land Rover, …
… a Jeep with a towing bar attached to its front bumper, …
… an Alvis FV101 Scorpion, …
… and a Caterpillar D7 Armoured Bulldozer.
Some vehicles were being driven around inside the display area, including two Daimler Dingo Scout Cars …
… and a Kettenkrad.
Re-enactor GroupsAs you would expect, the re-enactor groups were out in force. The largest number were dedicated to re-enacting various units of the German Armed Forces, including Panzer Lehr, who had their replica StuG III with them …
… as well as a Skdfz 251, …
… a Citroen truck, a PaK 36, and a motorcycle.
(This group was raising money for the Royal Marines Association. If you had your photograph taken aboard the StuG III you were asked to give a donation to the Association. People seemed to be being quite generous whilst I was there.)
Some of the other ‘German’ re-enactors had dug trenches and seemed prepared for a enemy attack …
… whilst others seemed to be in a more off-duty mode …
… or were receiving training.
British Airborne Forces were also represented by 2nd Battalion, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (the ‘Ox and Bucks’ AKA – according to my late father – as the ‘Ox and Jocks’) …
… and the Airborne/Parachute Field Security Section … who were doing what soldiers so often did when not in action … playing cards! (The Medical Officer was winning when I walked past.)
A group of Red Army re-enactors had constructed a trench system, that was defended by two female snipers …
… and a Russian-built Maxim Machine Gun.
The Spearfish Creek Wild West Group had a large contingent at the show. They specialise in depicting life in and around the mining town of Spearfish Creek in South Dakota during the nineteenth century.
The only group of re-enactors who depict the Croatian Army during the Croatian War of Independence (1991 to 1995) was also present at the show.
They are only a relatively new and small group, but they were very enthusiastic and more than willing to talk to anyone who stopped to look at their trench.
Classic VehiclesOne particular exhibit caught our eye as we walked around this section of the show … a Matchless motorbike.
These were built less than a mile away from where we live in a now-gone factory in Plumstead. It was nice to see such an excellent example of this British-built motorbike on show.
This was a very interesting and enjoyable way to spend our Saturday, and we were both pleased that we went. The show was well organised and there was more than enough to see and do. The entrance fee of £10.00 each (there were lower prices for children, serving military personnel, and OAPs) was good value, especially as it included free car parking.
Next year’s show takes place on 1st and 2nd August 2015, and is billed as being the V.E. Day Anniversary Show. If we aren’t on holiday at the time, we may well be going.
Severndroog Castle is a folly that was built by Lady James as a memorial to her husband, Commodore Sir William James. Commodore James achieved fame in April 1755 when he led a force that attacked and destroyed the Maratha fortress on the island of Suvarnadurg (which was pronounced Severndroog by the British). The island fortress was situated on the western coast of India between Bombay (Mumbai) and Goa.
The folly has a triangular floor plan and was designed in the Gothic-style. It is 63 feet (19m) high, and on its roof there are hexagonal turrets at each corner of the triangle. Its prominent position atop one of the highest points around London has meant that it has always enjoyed excellent views across London and the surrounding counties of Essex and Kent. In 1797 the castle was used by General William Roy when he made his trigonometric survey of Southern England, and again in 1848 when the Royal Engineers conducted their survey of London. The Castle is also reputed to have served as of the one stations on the Admiralty semaphore system between London and Chatham during the Napoleonic War, and was a fire-watching station during the Second World War.
The Castle was purchased by London County Council in 1922 and it was a local visitor attraction, with a ground-floor tearoom serving drinks and cakes. This closed in 1986 and the local council took over care and maintenance of the site. In 2002 the Severndroog Castle Building Preservation Trust was set up with the intention of renovating the Castle and returning it to public use. After mounting a very long and sustained campaign, the Trust received £595,000 of Heritage Lottery Funding, the necessary work was done, and the Castle was officially reopened to the public on 20th July this year.
The views from the top
(These are quite large images. To see them in detail you are advised to click on them.)
The view from the top of Severndroog Castle looking towards the south and south-west.
The view from the top of Severndroog Castle looking westwards towards Central London.
The view from the top of Severndroog Castle looking eastwards towards Kent.
The City of London.
Some of the City’s newer landmarks: the Cheese Grater and the Gherkin.