The Watawi War: The British subjugation of WatawilandPosted: July 28, 2013
During the reign of Chaka Zulu an impi led by Kakhandi was sent north to reconnoitre the area prior to a possible invasion. Not long after the impi arrived in the area of Dammallia now known as Watawiland, news of Chaka’s death reached Kakhandi and he decided that rather than returning south, he and the warriors of his impi would settle where they were. This brought them into conflict with the Firdarki, who were soundly beaten after a short but bloody war. The Firdarki retreated northward, leaving the Zulu impi to settle and farm the land unopposed.
Within a short time they had built a large kraal, and wives and cattle had been taken from the Firdarki. They also began to refer to themselves as the Watawi (“invincible ones”) and Kakhandi started to term himself Chief of the Watawi. The Watawi continued to follow a Zulu lifestyle based upon the ownership of cattle and military training, and within a few years three “regiments” had been formed. The largest of these – the N’diendi – was based in the Chief’s kraal at Manbashi, and the other two – the N’debagi and the N’dewoopsi – were based respectively in kraals at Buliboi and Xoshi.
Chapter 2 – The arrival of Sir Archibald Creep’s expedition in Watawiland
Very soon after Sir Archibald Creep began his voyage of exploration up the then uncharted Tifooti River he came across signs of the Watawi. Sir Archibald had experience in dealing with the Zulu and recognised the Zulu origins of the Watawi. He therefore made his way to the Chief’s kraal at Manbashi, where he was welcomed by Kakhandi.
Chapter 3 – The Treaty of Friendship
Within a short time both men had concluded a personal treaty of friendship which guaranteed Watawi independence in exchange for mineral rights for the British Afro-Asian Colonial Company. Kakhandi also agreed to allow the Society for the Propagation Of the Gospels to build a missionary chapel and a mission school at Manbashi. The work undertaken by the mission school so impressed Kakhandi that he insisted that his youngest grandson Uphandi attended the school in order to learn English.
In the years that followed the signing of the treaty of friendship, the personal relationship between Sir Archibald and Kakhandi ensured that there was little friction between the Watawi and the British, and the setting up of the British Colony of Dammallia had little impact upon the Watawi. However as Kakhandi grew older his eldest son, Mobhandi, began to voice his opinion that the Watawi were being maltreated by the British, and that Sir Archibald had not upheld his side of the treaty. Mobhandi’s attitude to the British was supported by his eldest son Rithandi, but his other son – the missionary school-educated Uphandi – felt that the treaty had not been broken.
Chapter 4 – The death of Kakhandi and the breakdown of British-Watawi relations
Matters came to a head when Kakhandi died and Mobhandi succeed him as Chief of the Watawi. Within days of Kakhandi’s death the Reverend Seymour Scinne, the SPOG missionary based at the Manbashi mission, was roughly handled by some members of the N’diendi Regiment whilst on his way to see Mobhandi about some pastoral matters. When he complained to Mobhandi about this treatment, Mobhandi dismissed the complaint as being no more than the representative of a devious and deceitful people should deserve.
The Reverend Scinne immediately reported this incident to the Governor of Dammallia, Sir Cedric Knowgoode, who then discussed the matter with Sir Archibald Creep. Sir Archibald cautioned Sir Cedric against taking any immediate military action, but suggested that the Colonial Office and the commander of the British garrison, Sir Garnet Diamond, be informed as a matter of some urgency in case matters deteriorated. He also suggested that a junior representative of the Colonial Government should discuss the matter informally with Mobhandi. This was to be done in the hope that Mobhandi could be made to understand the correct way in which to deal with British subjects without making him lose face in front of his fellow Watawi.
The junior representative chosen for the task was Mr. Richard Hedd, the colony’s newly appointed Tax Collector. Mr. Hedd was chosen for this task because he was due to pay a visit to the Watawi to discuss the collection of the Native Cattle Tax. This tax had been recently introduced by the Governor – at the suggestion of the British Afro-Asian Colonial Company – as a means of raising money to pay for the extension of the docks at Port Albert.
Unfortunately, although Mr. Hedd was a very experienced Tax Collector, he had very little understanding of how to deal with important native chieftains. When he arrived at Manbashi he failed to go through the normal ceremonies visitors were expected to follow before being admitted to the Chief’s presence. Instead he marched through the main gate of the Chief’s kraal and up to the throne. When he found that Mobhandi was not there, he sent one of Mobhandi’s servants to fetch his master.
When Mobhandi finally appeared he was very angry. Not only had his visitor not abided by the normally ceremonies of introduction, but he had also interrupted Mobhandi whilst he was eating – an insult that was unforgivable in Watawi culture. Despite this, at first he spoke politely to Mr. Hedd, and enquired what the Colonial Government wanted of him. Mr. Hedd then began to explain in a very undiplomatic manner how British subjects should, in future, be treated by Mobhandi. Despite Mobhandi’s obvious anger at being spoken to in such a way, Mr. Hedd pressed on with his diatribe, and added that he was serving notice on Mobhandi that he would be coming back in two weeks time to collect the Native Cattle Tax.
Mobhandi immediately protested that being treated in such a way was an insult to him personally and to the Watawi in general. He also added that he felt that the Treaty of Friendship had been abrogated by the imposition of the Native Cattle Tax, and that he had no intention of paying it. At this Mr. Hedd said that a tax was a tax, and would be collected with or without Mobhandi’s assistance. He then turned on his heel, and walked out.
Mobhandi was furious at the way in which he and the Watawi had been insulted, and he called his sons and counsellors together to discuss what course of action the Watawi should take. Rithandi and most of the older counsellors were in favour of immediate military action against the British, but Uphandi and the younger missionary school-educated men wanted to send a message to the Governor outlining the tribe’s grievances. It was finally decided to mobilise the N’diendi, N’debagi, and N’dewoopsi Regiments for war, but to wait until the Tax Collectors next visit before taking action.
When he returned to Port Albert, Richard Hedd wrote a report about his meeting with Mobhandi and sent it to the Governor. Sir Cedric decided that Mobhandi’s reaction to the tax demand indicated that there was likely to be trouble when Mr. Hedd returned to Manbashi in a fortnight’s time, and he asked Sir Archibald Creep, Sir Garnet Diamond, and Commissioner Evelyn Hall to join him for dinner to discuss what action to take.
Over dinner the men discussed what action to take, and it was finally decided to put the British garrison on a wartime footing, and to alert the Dammallian Frontier Force for possible action. It was also decided to send a small force of British Dammallian Police with Richard Hedd when he paid his next visit to Manbashi.
Chapter 5 – The death of Trooper McGrew
Two weeks later Mr. Hedd, accompanied by Sergeant Miller and Troopers Cuthbert, Dibble, Grubb, Hugh, McGrew, and Pugh of the British Dammallian Police, set out on horseback for Manbashi to collect the Native Cattle Tax that was now due. When they arrived at Mobhandi’s kraal they were met by a large number of warriors armed for battle, and Sergeant Miller ordered his men to load their carbines in anticipation of trouble. He also warned Mr. Hedd that they should not dismount in case the warriors’ mood became more hostile and they needed to leave quickly.
Mr. Hedd ignored this sound advice, dismounted, and marched into the Chief’s kraal as he had done before. This time, however, Mobhandi was waiting for him, surrounded by his counsellors. Before Mr. Hedd could speak, Mobhandi’s eldest son Rithandi walked up to him and threw a ceremonial spear into the ground between his feet – an action which was a gross insult in Watawi culture and a warning that violence would follow if an apology for previous wrongs was not made immediately.
For a moment Richard Hedd was speechless, and then he lost his temper. He began by shouting threats of retribution at Mobhandi and all those present, and then began to demand that Rithandi be handed over to the waiting members of the British Dammallian Police for arrest and trial for insulting a representative of the Colonial Government. Before he could finish, however, Sergeant Miller rushed in, grabbed him, and pulled him outside.
Mr. Hedd was about to tell the Sergeant that he would have him charged with assaulting a representative of the Colonial Government when the Sergeant drew his attention to the way in which the Watawi warriors were closing in around them. Mr. Hedd immediately mounted his horse, and without another word to the Sergeant he began to push his way through the dense crowd of Watawi. Sergeant Miller ordered the Troopers after Mr. Hedd whilst he and Trooper McGrew formed a rearguard. The group of mounted men had just reached the edge of the crowd when a small child ran towards Mr. Hedd’s horse. Without a thought for the consequences, Richard Hedd lashed out at the child with his riding crop, and caught him a glancing blow on the shoulder. Sergeant Miller had just enough time to shout, “Now we’re for it!”, when the warriors nearest to the party began to throw spears at them, one of which hit Trooper McGrew in the thigh.
Realising that the crowd’s mood was now deadly, Mr. Hedd spurred his horse forward, followed by the Sergeant and the Troopers. Unfortunately Trooper McGrew began to slip from his saddle as his horse began to accelerate, and the group had barely gone 100 yards before he fell off. When Sergeant Miller and Troopers Hugh and Dibble immediately reined their horses in and turned to aid their fallen comrade, Mr. Hedd turned in his saddle and shouted, “Leave him. He’s done for!”, before riding off.
Before Sergeant Miller and the Troopers could dismount, McGrew got to his knees and shouted up to the Sergeant, “Leave me ‘ere Dusty! I’ll cover yer while yer get away!”. Sergeant Miller, who had know McGrew for many years, replied, “I can’t do that Barney. We is old mates, and I never left a mate afor!”. McGrew looked up at his old friend and said, “Don’t be daft, Dusty, there ‘aint no point in all of us gettin’ done. Now eff orf and leave me to do me job.” McGrew then turned away, and aimed his carbine at the charging mass of Watawi warriors.
Reluctantly Sergeant Miller and the two Troopers turned away from McGrew and galloped after the Tax Collector and the other Troopers. Miller looked back over his shoulder as he rode off and, as he stated in his report, he ‘saw Trooper McGrew firing his carbine just as if he was at musketry practice, and he bowled over at least a dozen of the bounders before they got him.’
Chapter 6 – The reactions of the British and Watawi to the death of Trooper McGrew
On their return to Port Albert both Mr. Hedd and Sergeant Miller reported what had happened at Manbashi to their respective superiors. Sir Cedric Knowgoode immediately contacted Sir Archibald Creep and Sir Garnet Diamond to discuss the tragic events, only to find that Commissioner Evelyn Hall had already done so. All four men agreed to meet at the Governor’s Residence that evening to decide what course of action to take. As a result of this meeting it was agreed that the Queen’s Own Rifles, supported by the Port Albert Rifles, the Port Albert Artillery, and the Dammallian Light Horse from the Dammallia Frontier Force, would march on Manbashi in three days time and demand that the killers of Trooper McGrew be handed over for punishment and that a new Treaty of Friendship be signed.
Whilst these discussions were taking place in Port Albert, an equally important meeting was taking place in Manbashi. Mobhandi was both annoyed and apprehensive. He was annoyed because his treatment at the hands of the Tax Collector had caused him to lose considerable status in the eyes of his people, and he was apprehensive because he knew that the death of Trooper McGrew would not go unpunished. He had, therefore, called together all his counsellors to discuss what to do. Rithandi and the older men argued that the best course of action was to attack the British at once in order to catch them unprepared whilst Uphandi and the younger men felt that war should be avoided at all costs. After considerable discussion Mobhandi agreed to send the N’dewoopsi Regiment up to the border between Watawiland and Firdarkiland to dissuade the British from sending a punitive expedition against the Watawi. He also decided to concentrate the N’diendi and N’debagi Regiments at Manbashi in case the British were not dissuaded.
Three days later the British punitive expedition marched out of Port Albert. The Dammallian Light Horse headed the column, followed – in order – by the Queen’s Own Rifles, the Port Albert Artillery, and the Port Albert Rifles. For this expedition the Port Albert Artillery was equipped with a mixture of mule-borne mountain guns and Maxim machine guns, both of types of weapon having recently been acquired by the British Afro-Asian Colonial Company for their troops.
Chapter 7 – The Battle for the Border
The march to the border between Firdarkiland and Watawiland took the British almost a week. Once the expeditionary force was in open country the Dammallian Light Horse had deployed its scouts and outriders, and the column maintained this formation until the border was reached. Once there Sir Garnet Diamond ordered the column to rest for two days whilst the scouts reconnoitred the border area. By the end of those two days the scouts had discovered the location of the N’dewoopsi Regiment and were able to report that it was possible for the Watawi position to be outflanked.
On the morning of the third day Sir Garnet called his unit commanders together and outlined his battle plan. The Queen’s Own Rifles were to advance towards the Watawi position in line, with the mountain guns of the Port Albert Artillery in the centre of the line and their Maxim guns on the flanks. The Port Albert Rifles were to move out on to the left flank, parallel to the Queen’s Own Rifles line of advance, and were to hold their position until the “horns” of the N’dewoopsi Regiment were deployed; they were then to open an enfilading fire on the Watawi. The Dammallian Light Horse were to deploy on the right flank, and were expected to pursue the Watawi regiment when their morale had been broken.
As expected, Uphandi had deployed the N’dewoopsi in traditional Zulu battle formation, and when the British advance came into view he sent the right and left “horns” forward and outwards to envelop the British line. As soon as the Watawi “horns” moved the British advance halted, and the artillery and machine guns deployed. The mountain guns then began a bombardment of the Watawi centre, and the Maxim guns engaged the “horns”. At the same time the Port Albert Rifles began their enfilading fire on the right-hand “horn”.
The impact of this combination of rifle, machine gun, and shell fire on the N’dewoopsi Regiment was dramatic. Within the space of two minutes over a quarter of the Watawi were killed or wounded, and only the bravest managed to get within three hundred yards of the Queen’s Own Rifles before being cut down. Uphandi was appalled by the slaughter, and ordered the N’dewoopsi to withdraw. As they did so the Dammallian Light Horse charged the remnants of the left “horn”, which dissolved into a disorganised mass of dead, dying, and wounded. At the sight of this, the discipline of the remaining Watawi collapsed and they fled the battlefield in total disorder, pursue by the Dammallian Light Horse. Many warriors were killed during the pursuit and Uphandi only just managed to escape death at the hands of a trooper by climbing up a tree and hiding until night-time.
Having won a magnificent victory over the Watawi, Sir Garnet Diamond moved his troops a day’s march towards Manbashi and then set up camp. He then ordered them to rest whilst the scouts were sent ahead to find the location of the main body of the Watawi army.
Chapter 8 – The death of The Reverend Scinne
When news of the defeat reached Mobhandi he immediately ordered the disbandment of the N’dewoopsi Regiment and the enslavement of any surviving members of the Regiment. He also ordered that if Uphandi was still alive he was to be executed as soon as he was found. On hearing of the execution order, the Reverend Seymour Scinne, who had remained teaching at the mission school in Manbashi during the growing crisis, went to Mobhandi to plead for Uphandi’s life. The Chief listened to the missionary in silence, and then told him to leave. As the Reverend Scinne turned to go, Rithandi thrust a spear into the missionary’s back, killing him. The body was then dragged outside and left on the kraal’s rubbish heap for the jackals to feed on. The remains were later found by the British after the Battle of Manbashi, and were buried in the mission graveyard.
Chapter 9 – The rescue of Prince Leopold of Bad Limburg
Amongst the people who accompanied Sir Garnet Diamond’s headquarters during the Watawi War was Prince Leopold of Bad Limburg. The Prince was a distant nephew of Queen Victoria and had served as a Major in the 4 Garde Grenadier Regiment of the Imperial German Army before coming to Dammallia to do some big game hunting. Amongst his accomplishments, the Prince had been trained as a staff officer in the Imperial German Army, and as people with such training were in short supply in Dammallia, Sir Garnet had invited him to join his staff.
The Prince accepted the invitation, and soon made himself indispensable. He was particularly skilled in cartography and sketching, and was employed by Sir Garnet in the capacity of column map-maker. The Prince usually rode out ahead of the column, accompanied by several troopers of the Dammallian Light Horse, and made sketches and maps of the terrain over which the column would move next day.
Three days after the battle with the N’dewoopsi the Prince was on a map-making mission some eight miles ahead of the British camp. He was accompanied by Troopers Wain, Drew, and Tree of the Dammallian Light Horse. At midday Sir Garnet and his Chief of Staff, Major Cyril Frederick, decided to ride out to meet the map-making party in order to get some idea about the terrain over which the column would be moving next day. As they rode up they were met by Trooper Drew, who told Sir Garnet and Major Frederick that the Prince had dismounted and was some one hundred yards ahead drawing a sketch.
Before Sir Garnet and Major Frederick could ride forward, Trooper Wain rode in with the news that a large party of Watawi were moving towards them from the right. At once, Sir Garnet realised that Prince Leopold would be cut off by the Watawi before he could reach his horse. He immediately ordered Major Frederick and the Troopers to remain mounted and to engage the Watawi with rifle fire whilst he rode forward to collect the Prince.
Prince Leopold was unaware of the danger he was in until he heard the fast approaching Sir Garnet shouting a warning to him. As he turned toward his commander, a twenty-strong group of Watawi rushed out of the elephant grass some ten yards away. The Prince drew his pistol and fired at the warriors as they rushed towards him, but after he had fired his first shot his pistol jammed. The Watawi were upon him moments later, and he was knocked to the ground and stabbed with spears in the upper right arm and both legs. At that moment Sir Garnet Diamond arrived, jumped down from his horse, and began fighting off the Watawi warriors with his only weapon, a cavalry sword. Sir Garnet killed three of the Watawi, and rifle fire from Major Frederick and the Troopers accounted for a further four before the survivors drew back. Before the Watawi could renew their attack, Sir Garnet grabbed Prince Leopold by the collar, threw him over his horse’s neck, and mounted the horse. He then galloped off to where the Major and Troopers were, and the group then returned to the British camp, where the Prince received treatment for his wounds. Subsequently Queen Victoria awarded Sir Garnet the Victoria Cross for the bravery he displayed in the rescue of Prince Leopold.
Chapter 10 – The surrender of Uphandi and the N’dewoopsi Regiment
After their defeat, the survivors of the N’dewoopsi Regiment (including Uphandi) returned to their homes in Xoshi. There they were greeted with the news of Mobhandi’s decree that they should be enslaved, that Uphandi was to be executed on sight, and that the Reverend Scinne had been murdered. Uphandi called together those of his counsellors who were still alive, and they discussed what to do. After a night-long discussion it was decided that the only course of action they could follow was to surrender to the British in the hope that they would be merciful.
The next afternoon Uphandi and the counsellors set off on foot and unarmed for the British camp. After several hours they saw Troopers of the Dammallian Light Horse, who kept the Watawi under observation whilst they continued their march. As evening approached a large body of Dammallian Light Horse approached the Watawi, and were obviously preparing to attack. Uphandi immediately raised a white flag to indicate his wish to surrender, and leaving the rest of his party behind he walked towards the horsemen.
They told him to stop when he was ten yards from them, and the detachment’s commander asked him who he was and what he wanted. When Uphandi told the commander that he was Uphandi, son of Mobhandi and commander of the N’dewoopsi, the detachment commander told Uphandi to stay where he was. A messenger was then sent back to the British camp to inform Sir Garnet Diamond of the Uphandi’s desire to surrender.
When they heard the news, Sir Garnet and Major Frederick mounted their horses and rode out to see Uphandi so that they discuss surrender terms with him. Once they had arrived, Sir Garnet, Major Frederick and Uphandi sat down together in the bush as dusk fell, and the surrender terms were agreed. Uphandi undertook to return to Xoshi with his counsellors and a detachment of the Dammallian Light Horse. He would then guarantee that all the remaining weapons held by the survivors of the N’dewoopsi Regiment would be handed over, and the Regiment would be disbanded. In exchange, Sir Garnet undertook to defend Xoshi with a detachment of the Port Albert Rifles from any revenge Mobhandi might try to take.
Chapter 11 – The Battle of Manbashi
On the day after Uphandi and the N’dewoopsi Regiment surrendered, the British resumed their advance on Manbashi. As before the Dammallian Light Horse led the column, with scouts and outriders covering the flanks and line of advance. They were followed by the Queen’s Own Rifles and Port Albert Rifles marching in parallel columns, with the Port Albert Artillery between the two infantry columns. Sir Garnet Diamond expected the Watawi to mount an attack on the British force before it reached Manbashi, but they did not. The N’diendi and N’debagi Regiments remained in Manbashi, although small groups of Watawi warriors were often seen on the horizon by the British scouts.
The British advanced slowly but surely towards Manbashi over the next four days, and when they were five miles from the capital of Watawiland they halted and made camp. Sir Garnet then called all his unit commanders together and outlined his plan for the forthcoming battle. He intended to advance the infantry in line, with the Queen’s Own Rifles on the right and the Port Albert Rifles on the left. The mountain guns were to be deployed in the centre, and the Maxim guns were to be on either flank. The Dammallian Light Horse was to be split into two detachments, which would deploy on either flank to guard against any out-flanking moves by the Watawi. The force was to advance to small hill two miles from Manbashi, where it would deploy along the crest. The artillery was then to open fire upon the town, and this bombardment was to continue until the Watawi were goaded into making an attack.
At first light next morning the British battleline formed up and began its advance on Manbashi. They were about half a mile from their objective when a large body of Watawi appeared along the crest of the hill. It was immediately apparent to Sir Garnet that Mobhandi had stolen a march on him, and was preparing to attack. Moments later both flanks reported that several thousand Watawi warriors were moving around on either flank. Realising the danger his force was in, Sir Garnet rapped out a series of orders to his unit commanders, telling them to form a hollow square with the Dammallian Light Horse inside the square, and the mountain and Maxim guns in each corner.
Sir Garnet was perfectly correct in his assumption that Mobhandi intended to ambush the British before they were able to reach the hill. During the previous day Mobhandi and Rithandi had joined one of the Watawi scouting parties, and had observed the British force on the march. They had realised that the traditional Zulu attack formation used by the Watawi could, if used at the right time, envelop the British force before it could deploy its most powerful weapons – the artillery and machine guns. What they had not realised was that this was not the formation that the British might use for their attack on Manbashi. As a result of this miscalculation, the Watawi flanking movement had been detected before it was in a position to attack.
The outcome of the battle now depended upon whether or not the British could form square before the Watawi attacked. As the minutes ticked by the British moved rapidly into position, whilst the outflanking Watawi got closer and closer. In the end, the Watawi were two hundred yards short of reaching the remaining gap in the square’s wall as the last British soldier got into position. All around the square orders to load and aim were given, and when the outflanking Watawi closed to within thirty yards, the order to fire range out.
The effect upon the attacking Watawi was devastating. The first volley of rifle fire from the sides of the square facing the attacks, coupled with the fire from the Maxim machine guns and mountain gun shells, killed or wounded over a third of the attackers. The subsequent four volleys stopped then in their tracks, and made casualties of three quarters of the remaining attackers.
Whilst the survivors of the first attack withdrew, the Watawi reserve, which had remained on the hill, moved forward. Their advance was rapid, but the British troops they faced were fresh and their rifle fire cut swathes in the ranks of the attackers. Once the mountain guns and the machine guns were swung round to engage the new attack, and their fire had been added to the firepower faced by the Watawi, the attack began to falter. More and more warriors fell to the ground dead or wounded, and the advance of those that remained became slower and slower until it finally stopped about twenty five yards away from the front rank of the British square.
Sir Garnet Diamond immediately ordered the rear side of the square to open. The Dammallian Light Horse then rode out through the gap in the square to charge the stationary Watawi. At the sight of the charging horsemen Watawi morale broke, and they began to run, pursued by the Dammallian Light Horse.
Mobhandi and Rithandi had been watching the progress of he battle from the top of the hill, and now realised that their army had not only been beaten; it had been destroyed. They and their most trusted counsellors now fled the battlefield and made their way to the Tifooti River, where they were able to get aboard a Marzibarian dhow that was anchored there. The captain knew Mobhandi well – he had previously bought captured Firdarki from Mobhandi to sell as slaves in Marzibar City – and agreed to take him and his party to Marzibar.
Chapter 12 – The aftermath
The British resumed their march on Manbashi during the afternoon after the battle. They reached the Watawi capital just before dark, and found it almost deserted. All of the men and most of the women and children had fled, and only the sick or elderly remained. Sir Garnet ordered that a search of Mobhandi’s kraal be made, but no trace of the Chief or Rithandi could be found. The British made their camp outside Manbashi, and during the following week patrols brought in and disarmed the surviving members of the N’diendi and N’debagi Regiments. Many of the inhabitants of Manbashi also returned during that week, and on the seventh day Uphandi arrived to discuss the future of the Watawi with Sir Garnet Diamond and the Governor, Sir Cedric Knowgoode. Sir Cedric arrived by boat with Sir Archibald Creep on the next morning, and the conference began that afternoon.
Uphandi pleaded for mercy for his people, and suggested that in return for disbanding the remaining remnants of the Watawi army he would put the defence of Watawiland in the hands of the British. He also asked to re-negotiate the Treaty of Friendship, and agreed to pay both the Native Cattle Tax and an indemnity to the British to compensate them for the cost of the punitive expedition.
The British listened to Uphandi in silence, and then asked him who was to be the new Chief of the Watawi. Uphandi replied that he was willing to become the new chief if the British agreed. The British then left to discuss what Uphandi had said. When the British returned they told Uphandi that his suggestions were acceptable, and that he would be proclaimed Chief of the Watawi next day. He had, however, to guarantee the following:
- That the N’diendi and N’debagi Regiments would be disbanded at once;
- That a new Treaty of Friendship would be signed next day;
- That the Native Cattle Tax would be paid in full within thirty days;
- That a compensation payment of £100,000 would be paid in full within one hundred days;
- That the British Dammallian Police could set up a permanent police post in Manbashi;
- That the British could station a military garrison in Manbashi.
Uphandi agreed to these terms, and was proclaimed Chief of the Watawi next day. He was further allowed to use ex-members of the N’dewoopsi Regiment to form a native police force, trained by the British Dammallian Police. This unit later formed the basis of 1st Battalion, the Dammallian African Rifles.